Nano medicine is one of the application of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is a branch of science and technology that deals with nano devices. Nano Science is the study about nano particles and its application in various fields. Nano-medicine is one of its application. Nano-medicine is creating a new way to treat human cells without generating any extra harm to body.
Yes, the treatment of human diseases are now possible with nano medicines. Nano medicine are combination of nano particles attached to nano devices, to target a specific cell. These are injected to human body. Nano medicine is advance way to handle site specific damage in a body, ie. like cancer cells.
Let’s find out – What are nano medicine? How they are used to treat diseases? Pro’s and con’s of nano medicine? Are they really effective in this developing world?
What are Nano medicines?
The word Nanomedicines is made up with two words:- * Nano means very small that can be microscopic & *Medicine means a drug or treatment to prevent any particular disease.
Nano medicine is a medical application of nanotechnology, which deals with nano particles to diagnose, monitor, control and treat living cells in the human body.
Nano medicine involves targeting of diagnostic, pharmaceutical and therapeutic agents using nano particles to treat cancer cells or other cells. Nano medicine is the improvement and preservation of human health using micro tools of atomic or molecular range to treat molecular body. Nano particles are measured on nano scale of nano meter. Nano meter is denoted by nm, 1 nm is equal to 1 billionth of meter.
How nano medicines are used to treat diseases?
Nano medicine, in the form of nano robots Or nano vesicles are easily injected to person’s body. They can travel through blood vessels, lymph and even organs to detect the cause of any problem. Nano particles are engineered in such a way that they get attracted to specific site in body to start there function. These are used to diagnose and therapeutically treat the damaged site of body.
|Metal based nano particles –||Metals like- Au, Ag, Cd-Se, Zn-S|
|Lipid based nano particles –||Liposome and neosome|
|Polymer based nano particles –||Dendrimer, chitosen, Micelle based|
Antibodies attached with carbon nanotubes in chips are used to check early cancer cell activities in blood stream. Gold nanorods attached with specific protein are used to diagnose damage in kidney cells in a human body. Color of nanorods change when any damage is found in kidneys.
Polymer Nanoparticles are developed times treat internal blood loss in a patient’s body. These polymer function as synthetic platelets to stop the loss of blood from body. These are injected directly in blood stream.
Nano-robots are programmed in such a way that they function to repair internal injury in similar way the antibodies do naturally. These have sensors and wireless system that are connected to computer to examine the activities of body. This technique suggest a way to doctors and researchers that how to prevent the type of disease or damage held inside, without harming any part of body externally.
Nano shells have core of silica and metallic outer cover,linked to antibodies. After reaching tumor cells in body IR rays produce intense heat that tumor cells get damaged easily without harming healthy cells near by. Magnetic nanoparticles are used to reach site of damage and repair them via medication embedded in them.
FDA approved drugs- nano medicine in the developing world.
Some nano drugs that are approved by FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has proved to be very effective for treatment. Nano medicines assure best way of treatment without harming any other healthy tissue or organ inside body. These nano drugs are commercially available in the world for human diagnosis and therapeutic activities. Some of them are:-
- Abraxane – It is first nano drug to be formed and utilised for human treatment, which helps to cure pancreatic cancer, breast cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
- Doxil – This drug is encased in Liposomes. It is used in HIV related treatment. Now it also helps to cure ovarian cancer and multiple myeloma.
- Rapamune – This is nano crystal based nano drug used to prevent organ rejection after transplant. It was approved by FDA in the year 2000.
- Irinotecan – This Liposome encapsulated drug recently approved by FDA in October 2015 used to treat metastatic pancreatic cancer.
- Paclitaxel is a polymeric nano particles used to treat damaged cells.
There are many other nano drugs that are being developed and researches are still on flow to bring more innovative change for curing harmful diseases inside human body.
Pro’s and Con’s of nano medicine
Nano medicine have both advantages, along with disadvantages. Let’s check, what are they?
Advantages :- Nano medicines have reduced the negative impact of drugs and surgeries on body externally.
- These are smaller tools that work very rapidly as get activated into body.
- Drug is delivered to exact location without damaging other cells.
- This have lesser side effects on body.
- This technology is very effective in treatment of cancer.
- This is highly advance technology that reduce degree of Invasiveness.
- Cost effectiveness of medicines and disease management procedure as a whole.
Disadvantages :- This costs high and may not be affordable to all.
- Nanotoxicity is major cause of its disadvantage. Some nano drugs may get into immune system and cause hindrance in its functioning.
- Implementation issues.
- Nano medicines are facing ethical, social, environmental and some regulatory issues.
- Practicals are performed on patients but some have threat to die.
Nano medicine is a science and technology that deals with nano particles. These are found to be very effective in treatment of cancer and other diseases. But everything in nature has both positive and negative side. Its upto people to choose positive way or negative. There may be risk indeed but the fast and effectiveness of this technology can beat all other concerns regarding health.