HIV – Human immunodeficiency virus is responsible for causing AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). HIV is responsible for damaging the immune system of humans. AIDS is late stage of HIV infection, which has no permanent cure so far.
AIDS is a type of disease caused due to HIV infection. Person having AIDS have weak immune system. They become susceptible to every kind of infection rapidly. Antibodies production become slow and fighting cells of body (WBCs) get destroyed by HIV. Some symptoms appear after body’s contamination with virus. In many cases, person infected with HIV, show symptoms after a decade or more.
Once a person have HIV, it is for life long. There is no effective HIV cures till now. HIV drugs can only help person to live for more further years and stop the progress of disease. For more specific treatment of HIV-AIDS, nanotechnology has upgraded biomedical applications. Nanotechnology uses nanorobots to diagnose and treat the disease.
What is HIV and AIDS?
HIV is a special class of retrovirus that causes viral infection in body. It has RNA and this transcribes in human cells. Virus attacks white blood cells and progressively destroy them. Main site of virus to attack and replicate itself is CD4+ Lymphocytes.
HIV is transmitted through fluid medium like- blood, saliva, sweat, semen and vaginal fluids. It has conveniently spread due to use of syringes more than once, blood transfusion and sex without protection.
HIV virus is diagnosed via blood test, which have antibody against HIV. These antibodies are of no worth to body. Early diagnosis of HIV can help person to treat with HIV medicine ie, Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART). This drug make HIV viruses inactive in body and ceases it’s reproduction further. Lack of diagnosis lead to last stage of HIV infection as AIDS.
Zidovudine is latest drug for treatment of AIDS. It have property to bind before reverse transcriptase site of HIV virus and stop the process of transcription. But this is not permanent treatment, this drug also lose its affinity after some time.
Symptoms of AIDS – Fever, swollen lymph nodes, rashes, muscle blisters, excessive tiredness, weight loss, diarrhea for more than a week, sores in mouth, fatigue, neurological disorders and depression. These symptoms either appear in early weeks of infection or can take a year and more.
Treatment of AIDS through nanotechnology
After reading above section, may you have build up an idea and understanding about AIDS and HIV. It is clear that, AIDS can not be cured with medicines and antibodies. HIV is persistent in body throughout life time. Some new technology and science have developed a new way for the treatment of HIV and AIDS. Nanotechnology has brought up a new light in field of medication and treatment.
White blood cells handle the immune system of body as it’s B-cell produces antibodies against foreign particles and Helper T-cells help B-cell to synthesise antibodies. When this virus start to destroy WBCs, the defense mechanism of body get weaker and weaker by time. The body get vulnerable to very common infections like common cold and others.
For more specific and efficient treatment of AIDS and HIV, nanotechnology had proved to be remarkable. It utilise nano-robots for diagnosis and therapeutic procedure. One Nano is billionth part of One. Nanotechnology is the research field that works at nano scale of atom and molecules.
Nano devices and nano particles have power to penetrate inside skin and travel through body fluids. Nano devices have transmitter and sensors which are monitored on computer to diagnose and treat disease. Nanotechnology has various application in medical field. It also proved to be effective in treatment of cancer. Nanotechnology has brought up the way to reach the actual cause of any specific disease.
Nano-robots are created at microscopic scale of 10^-9 (ten to the power of minus nine). They are tiny machines that work at atomic, molecular and cellular level inside body. They are constructed by carbon atoms and body friendly atoms that can easily be penetrated and cause no extra harm to body.
Components of nano-robots :-
- Nano chips
- Nano tube
- Nano container
Action of nano-robots in body
- Nano-robots are injected into body. They destroy the genome of virus. These are engineered specially with a container of DNase and RNase.
- Nano-robots have biosensor and a data converter embedded in it. Biosensor have Antigen gp41 and gp120 tagged on its surface. When infected cell come to it’s contact, immunochemical reaction bring a signal, that is used in diagnosis.
- Nano chip receives signal from biosensor and transmit it to nano tube. As nano tube receive positive signal they get incorporated into nucleus of target cell.
- Nano container deliver its enzyme into infected cell and cleave the whole genomic DNA into nucleotides.
- Once the genomic DNA of infected cells get untangled they reduces viral effect on body. After digestion of genomic DNA cell undergoes programmed cell death (apoptosis).
- In this way, nano-robots target infected cells in body and destroy their genomic sequence. This results in a better way to treat AIDS and HIV infection in a person.
Advantages of nano-robots for Anti-HIV treatment
In current time, there is no vaccine and treatment for this deadly disease. Nano-robots proved to be helpful in curing AIDS to greater extent. Drugs for treating the infection of HIV also not mark complete cure. Nano-robots bring new hope in medical field for treatment of HIV infection. Nano-robots do not produce any side effects in body. These are faster and effective way of treatment. It helps to diagnose accurately and function at specific targeted site.
The only difficulty in nano-robotic treatment is it’s high cost. Their design and composition is difficult to develop.
Nanotechnology has bring a new hope of treatment in the medical field. They generate most effective way of diagnosis and therapy. AIDS and cancer type of diseases are also being cured by nanotechnology, then this can prove to take more actions in new era of technology.