Skin is outermost layer of living body. It is flexible and sensitive part of body. It’s function is protection, regulation and sensation. It is made up of 3 layers:- epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. Epidermis is exposed to external environment. Pollution directly affects the skin tone, softness and other skin related problems.
Exposure of the skin due to pollution has been associated with different skin diseases.
The increase of pollution over the years, has creates the major effect the human skin. As, the skin is the largest organ of the body, with total areas about 20 squre feet. The skin protects us from microbes and the elements, helps to regulate body temperature and permit the sensitivity of touch, heat and cold. The skin colour created by special cells called melanocytes, which produce the pigment melamin melanocytes are located in the epidermis.
Skin problem mainly causes due to the increase of air pollution. The skin is exposed to Ultraviolent Rediation (UVR) and environmental air pollutants such as polytechnic aromatic hydrocarbons (VOCs), oxide, particulate matter(PM), Ozone and cigarette smoke. The human skin act a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants.
The human skin and mainly the upper layer of the epidermis mostly effected, it’s plays the role of a barrier. The first and foremost major target of air pollutants which causes the skin diseases. Air pollutants include the intoxic chemicals such as UVR, PAHs, and different organic compound which is the main causes of ill-health for our skin.
The five main compounds in air pollutants and there effects on skin:
Ultraviolet Radiation: The solar UVR consists of three spectral areas: UVA( 320-400 nm), UVB( 280-320 nm) and UVC( 180-280 nm). More then 95% of the solar UVR that reaches the earth serface in UVA, UVB is 1-5%, whereas UVC is absorbed by atmosphere and it thus a very small source of adverse in human health.
The effects of UVR on human skin is differ depending on the wave length. UVA has been implicated in skin orging it develop different diseases like skin cancer, Basal Cell carcinoma(BCC), Squamous Cell carcinoma (SCC) and cutaneous immunosuppression. However, UVA and UVB damage DNA through different mechanisms.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs): PAHs among the most organic pollutants, the main source of atmosphere PAH bunzo pyrene is residual wood burning. It is also being found in automobile’s fule, and in all smoke resulting from the combination of organic pollutants. Skin pigmentation may occurs due to frequently bond of surface- combusting terived and absounted on the surface layer of air in urban areas.
Those pollutants has an efficient to absorbed the toxic compound. This compound also creates oxidative stress, skin aging and also effects in hair follicle as well as skin cancer.
Ozone: Ozone exists is the strotosphere and in troposphere. Ozone is found in low concentration at ground level, originating from the stratospheric ozone and hydrocarbons which are released by plants and soil. It also formed as a by-product of certain human activity which infactuation of sunlight. The action of ozone could reveal synergistic oxidative stress on the skin.
It falls effects and it may damaged of murine skin, reduce the level of antioxidants such as topheral and ascorbic acid and increase malondial dehyde a lipid peroxidion products.
Oxides: Nitrogen oxide are emitted mainly from mobile and stationary, the combination of both sources from both the commodity. It damage the free radicals that may oxide amio acids in tissues of skin. Atmospheric sulfur dioxide can be formed from both fuel combinations and industrial processes as well as from natural sources which creates a huge damage on the tissues of the skin as well as the symptoms of heart attack and many other diseases can be found from this toxic compound.
Volatile organic compounds( VOCs): The compound is from the organic solvents in paints, varnished, vehicle refinishing products in repairing car paints, environmental tobacco smoke, and emission from industrial facilities. VOCs, with the pressure of sunlight causes the formation of photochemical oxidant products mainly ozone at ground level it also called summer photochemical smog, it’s can create the effects on eye as well as skin which can be damage the tissues, which could the favour the development of inflammatory and aleerigic reaction on skin as atopic eczema.
Air pollutants, which effects on the skin include the solar UVR, oxides, ozone, PAHs, with considerable skin aging, atopic dermatitis, skin cancer, psoriasis, and acne.